Data Mutation

This tutorial is a continuation of the DHIS2 application runtime tutorial on Data Query.

In this section we will:

  1. Get started with data mutations
  2. Learn how to define these mutations
  3. Mutate data using the useDataMutation hook

1. Getting started#

Prerequisites#

Make sure that you have the @dhis2/app-runtime dependency installed in your project:

yarn add @dhis2/app-runtime

What are data mutations?#

Data queries are for reading information and data mutations are for writing or changing that information.

With the DHIS2 app runtime, we have 3 different types of mutation which translate directly to REST API requests:

Mutation TypeREST requests
CreatePOST
UpdatePUT
DeleteDELETE

2. Define data mutations#

In this example, we will continue building on the application from the previous tutorial and create a new program by clicking a button.

To start, let's create a separate file for our src/NewProgram.js component which we will import in the src/App.js.

Next, let's define a simple create mutation 👇

Create mutation#

As with the data query definition from the previous tutorial, the create mutation below is also an object that specifies the resource programs from the DHIS2 Web API as well as the following required properties:

  • The property type as create (since we're creating a new program in this example)
  • The data property which is required in type create
note

The property names of data must correspond to the property names in the DHIS2 API.

src/NewProgram.js
// ...
const myMutation = {
resource: 'programs',
type: 'create',
data: {
name: 'A new Program',
shortName: 'A new Program',
programType: "WITH_REGISTRATION"
}
}
// ...

3. Mutating data#

We have already declared our data mutation above so now we're ready to use it!

Let's start by importing the useDataMutation hook from the @dhis2/app-runtime

Import useDataMutation#

src/NewProgram.js
import { useDataMutation } from '@dhis2/app-runtime'
// ...

Use the useDataMutation hook#

Next, let's define our React functional component NewProgram which will use the useDataMutation hook.

Check the highlighted code below and notice a few things:

  1. We get the mutate function in the array that's returned by the useDataMutation hook. We can call this function to execute the mutation:

    • So we then pass the myMutation object to the useDataMutation hook
  2. We have created an onClick async function that will be passed to the Button component. Here, the mutate() function is called as well as refetch()

    • Note: The refetch function comes from the parent component src/App.js and the useDataQuery hook (see next section below) which can be called to refetch data and has the behaviour of updating the information after the first load has completed. In this case, after a new program has been created.
src/NewProgram.js
import { useDataMutation } from '@dhis2/app-runtime'
import { Button } from '@dhis2/ui'
const myMutation = {
resource: 'programs',
type: 'create',
data: {
name: 'A new Program',
shortName: 'A new Program',
programType: "WITH_REGISTRATION"
}
}
export const NewProgram = ({ refetch }) => {
const [mutate, { loading }] = useDataMutation(myMutation)
const onClick = async () => {
await mutate()
refetch()
}
return <Button primary small disabled={loading} onClick={onClick}>+ New</Button>
}

Use the NewProgram component#

We can now import the src/NewProgram.js component in src/MyApp.js.

The highlighted code inside the MyApp functional component shows the refetch function mentioned above which is passed as props to its child component NewProgram:

src/App.js
import React from 'react'
import { useDataQuery } from '@dhis2/app-runtime'
import { NewProgram } from './NewProgram'
const myQuery = {
results: {
resource: 'programs',
params: {
pageSize: 5,
fields: ['id', 'displayName']
},
},
}
const MyApp = () => {
const { loading, error, data, refetch } = useDataQuery(myQuery)
if (error) {return <span>ERROR: {error.message}</span>}
if (loading) {return <span>Loading...</span>}
return (
<div>
<h1>Programs</h1>
<NewProgram refetch={refetch} />
<ul>
{data.results.programs.map(prog => (
<li key={prog.id}>
{prog.displayName}
</li>
))}
</ul>
</div>
)
}
export default MyApp

Check your browser#

When you click the button + New a new program will be added to the list 👏

Optional: Delete a program#

See below👇 

If you want to delete a program, you can create the following component:

src/DeleteProgram.js
import { useDataMutation } from '@dhis2/app-runtime'
import { Button } from '@dhis2/ui'
const deleteMutation = {
resource: 'programs',
type: 'delete',
id: ({ id }) => id
}
export const DeleteProgram = ({ id, refetch }) => {
const [mutate, { loading }] = useDataMutation(deleteMutation)
const onClick = () => {
mutate({ id }).then(refetch)
}
return (
<>
<Button small destructive disabled={loading} onClick={onClick}>
Delete
</Button>
</>
)
}

Then add it to your application:

src/App.js
// ...
import { DeleteProgram } from './DeleteProgram'
// ...
<ul>
{data.results.programs.map(prog => (
<li key={prog.id}>
{prog.displayName}
<DeleteProgram id={prog.id} refetch={refetch}>Delete</DeleteProgram>
</li>
))}
</ul>
// ...

More examples?#

Want to learn more?#

What's next?#

Learn how to submit your DHIS2 application to the App Hub by checking out this guide as well as the App Hub Submission Guidelines.